Synergistic Coupling of Green Buildings and Electric Vehicles Charging Control
Dr Tan, Siew Chong (Principal investigator)
Green Buildings, Electric Vehicles, Smart Grids, Power Systems, Sliding Mode Control
Block Grant Earmarked for Research (104)
HKU Project Code
Seed Fund for Basic Research
Hypothetically, if it is possible through technology to ensure that the power consumption from the grid is relatively constant at all times or that it is known and predetermined with utmost certainty, then it is possible to achieve an ideal condition of perfect electrification where power generation is constant and matches the power consumption at all times. This eliminates the need for peaking generation and a spinning reserve. Clearly, such a phenomenon would be the dream of any energy management authority as it means huge energy saving, higher grid reliability and certainty, and lower cost in electricity generation, transmission and distribution. In this project, we explore the concept of smart synergistic coupling of green buildings and electric vehicles, which holistically is equivalent to an integrated power-consumption unit, of which when widely integrated, can potentially lead us to, from a macro-level point of view, the desired paradigm of the so-called perfect electrification. This is possible because each of these micro-modular power-consumption unit will be designed to consume a constant and known level of power from the grid, and when many of these units are put together, what is achieved will be an overall known and constant power consumption that can be easily handled by a constant generation of power supply and with minimal effort required in tackling uncertainty. Conceptually, such a micro-modular power-consumption unit will be made up of the power infrastructure of a building or a precinct with several chosen buildings, its/their carpark(s)-full of electric-vehicle charging platforms, and potentially a/several small energy storage unit(s) of a capacity that will be sized accordingly to the building load pattern and the daily parking pattern of the electric vehicles (EV). The primary assumption is that each unit is allocated with a fixed amount of power for consumption, which is rated at its maximum needs. At any point in time, the instantaneous power consumed by the building(s) itself will be monitored (but not interfered since it is for primarily usages) and that any surplus power (difference between allocated power and consumed power) will be reallocated to the EV in the carpark through an intelligent energy management system. In the event that no EV is around or that all EV are fully charged, the energy storage unit will be activated to absorb the excess power. The result of this will be constant power consumption by the micromodular power-consumption unit. Taking note the importance that EV charging should not be sacrificed during the process, the techniques of prioritizing the charging process and time-multiplex charging will be adopted in the energy management system such that the task of charging EV within an allocated time framework is simultaneously accomplished. Additionally, with the presence of the energy storage unit, an added degree of flexibility is inherited in terms of peak-time charging or fast charging of the EV whereby the demand for energy is more critical and stressful on the power infrastructures, and that by supplying to these demands through the energy storage unit, the impact on the stresses can be alleviated. The project addresses an energy-efficiency issue in terms of alleviating losses in conventional power generation which requires peak-demand generation and a spinning reserve through the proper energy management of a building¡¦s consumption and its EV charging demand. It must be clearly emphasized that the energy saving that will be achieved through the advancement of this technology is not by individual buildings themselves, but rather, represents a much higher level of power saving occurring at the power generation side. Specifically, the objectives of the project is as follows. 1. To derive a model of the energy consumption profile of a green building. 2. To derive a model of its EV charging profile. 3. To investigate and design a suitable micro-modular power-consumption unit. 4. To devise the control approach of smart synergistic coupling of green buildings and electric vehicles.