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Article: A novel dual-wavelength laser stimulator to elicit transient and tonic nociceptive stimulation

TitleA novel dual-wavelength laser stimulator to elicit transient and tonic nociceptive stimulation
Authors
KeywordsLaser stimulator
Nociceptive stimulation
Temperature feedback control system
Tonic pain
Transient pain
Issue Date2017
PublisherSpringer-Verlag London Ltd. The Journal's web site is located at http://link.springer-ny.com/link/service/journals/10103/index.htm
Citation
Lasers in Medical Science, 2017, v. 32 n. 5, p. 1001-1008 How to Cite?
AbstractThis study aimed to develop a new laser stimulator to elicit both transient and sustained heat stimulation with a dual-wavelength laser system as a tool for the investigation of both transient and tonic experimental models of pain. The laser stimulator used a 980-nm pulsed laser to generate transient heat stimulation and a 1940-nm continuous-wave (CW) laser to provide sustained heat stimulation. The laser with 980-nm wavelength can elicit transient pain with less thermal injury, while the 1940-nm CW laser can effectively stimulate both superficial and deep nociceptors to elicit tonic pain. A proportional integral-derivative (PID) temperature feedback control system was implemented to ensure constancy of temperature during heat stimulation. The performance of this stimulator was evaluated by in vitro and in vivo animal experiments. In vitro experiments on totally 120 specimens fresh pig skin included transient heat stimulation by 980-nm laser (1.5 J, 10 ms), sustained heat stimulation by 1940-nm laser (50-55 °C temperature control mode or 1.5 W, 5 min continuous power supply), and the combination of transient/sustained heat stimulation by dual lasers (1.5 J, 10 ms, 980-nm pulse laser, and 1940-nm laser with 50-55 °C temperature control mode). Hemoglobin brushing and wind-cooling methods were tested to find better stimulation model. A classic tail-flick latency (TFL) experiment with 20 Wistar rats was used to evaluate the in vivo efficacy of transient and tonic pain stimulation with 15 J, 100 ms 980-nm single laser pulse, and 1.5 W constant 1940-nm laser power. Ideal stimulation parameters to generate transient pain were found to be a 26.6 °C peak temperature rise and 0.67 s pain duration. In our model of tonic pain, 5 min of tonic stimulation produced a temperature change of 53.7 ± 1.3 °C with 1.6 ± 0.2% variation. When the transient and tonic stimulation protocols were combined, no significant difference was observed depending on the order of stimuli. Obvious tail-flick movements were observed. The TFL value of transient pain was 3.0 ± 0.8 s, and it was 4.4 ± 1.8 s for tonic pain stimulation. This study shows that our novel design can provide effective stimulation of transient pain and stable tonic pain. Furthermore, it can also provide a reliable combination of transient and consistent stimulations for basic studies of pain perception.
Persistent Identifierhttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/259420
ISSN
2017 Impact Factor: 1.949
2015 SCImago Journal Rankings: 0.885
ISI Accession Number ID

 

DC FieldValueLanguage
dc.contributor.authorDong, X-
dc.contributor.authorLiu, T-
dc.contributor.authorWang, H-
dc.contributor.authorYang, J-
dc.contributor.authorChen, Z-
dc.contributor.authorHu, Y-
dc.contributor.authorLi, Y-
dc.date.accessioned2018-09-03T04:07:09Z-
dc.date.available2018-09-03T04:07:09Z-
dc.date.issued2017-
dc.identifier.citationLasers in Medical Science, 2017, v. 32 n. 5, p. 1001-1008-
dc.identifier.issn0268-8921-
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/259420-
dc.description.abstractThis study aimed to develop a new laser stimulator to elicit both transient and sustained heat stimulation with a dual-wavelength laser system as a tool for the investigation of both transient and tonic experimental models of pain. The laser stimulator used a 980-nm pulsed laser to generate transient heat stimulation and a 1940-nm continuous-wave (CW) laser to provide sustained heat stimulation. The laser with 980-nm wavelength can elicit transient pain with less thermal injury, while the 1940-nm CW laser can effectively stimulate both superficial and deep nociceptors to elicit tonic pain. A proportional integral-derivative (PID) temperature feedback control system was implemented to ensure constancy of temperature during heat stimulation. The performance of this stimulator was evaluated by in vitro and in vivo animal experiments. In vitro experiments on totally 120 specimens fresh pig skin included transient heat stimulation by 980-nm laser (1.5 J, 10 ms), sustained heat stimulation by 1940-nm laser (50-55 °C temperature control mode or 1.5 W, 5 min continuous power supply), and the combination of transient/sustained heat stimulation by dual lasers (1.5 J, 10 ms, 980-nm pulse laser, and 1940-nm laser with 50-55 °C temperature control mode). Hemoglobin brushing and wind-cooling methods were tested to find better stimulation model. A classic tail-flick latency (TFL) experiment with 20 Wistar rats was used to evaluate the in vivo efficacy of transient and tonic pain stimulation with 15 J, 100 ms 980-nm single laser pulse, and 1.5 W constant 1940-nm laser power. Ideal stimulation parameters to generate transient pain were found to be a 26.6 °C peak temperature rise and 0.67 s pain duration. In our model of tonic pain, 5 min of tonic stimulation produced a temperature change of 53.7 ± 1.3 °C with 1.6 ± 0.2% variation. When the transient and tonic stimulation protocols were combined, no significant difference was observed depending on the order of stimuli. Obvious tail-flick movements were observed. The TFL value of transient pain was 3.0 ± 0.8 s, and it was 4.4 ± 1.8 s for tonic pain stimulation. This study shows that our novel design can provide effective stimulation of transient pain and stable tonic pain. Furthermore, it can also provide a reliable combination of transient and consistent stimulations for basic studies of pain perception.-
dc.languageeng-
dc.publisherSpringer-Verlag London Ltd. The Journal's web site is located at http://link.springer-ny.com/link/service/journals/10103/index.htm-
dc.relation.ispartofLasers in Medical Science-
dc.rightsThe final publication is available at Springer via http://dx.doi.org/[insert DOI]-
dc.subjectLaser stimulator-
dc.subjectNociceptive stimulation-
dc.subjectTemperature feedback control system-
dc.subjectTonic pain-
dc.subjectTransient pain-
dc.titleA novel dual-wavelength laser stimulator to elicit transient and tonic nociceptive stimulation-
dc.typeArticle-
dc.identifier.emailHu, Y: yhud@hku.hk-
dc.identifier.authorityHu, Y=rp00432-
dc.identifier.doi10.1007/s10103-017-2200-3-
dc.identifier.pmid28528394-
dc.identifier.hkuros289689-
dc.identifier.volume32-
dc.identifier.issue5-
dc.identifier.spage1001-
dc.identifier.epage1008-
dc.identifier.isiWOS:000403471600005-
dc.publisher.placeUnited Kingdom-

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