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Article: Predictive biomarkers and tumor microenvironment in female genital melanomas: a multi-institutional study of 55 cases

TitlePredictive biomarkers and tumor microenvironment in female genital melanomas: a multi-institutional study of 55 cases
Authors
KeywordsImmunotherapy
Neoplasms
Checkpoint inhibitor
Issue Date2020
PublisherNature Publishing Group. The Journal's web site is located at http://www.nature.com/modpathol/
Citation
Modern Pathology, 2020, v. 33, p. 138-152 How to Cite?
AbstractFemale genital melanomas are rare. At diagnosis, most affected patients have advanced disease. Surgery remains the primary treatment, and adjuvant therapy is largely ineffective. Recently, immune checkpoints and the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway have been explored as treatment targets. However, evaluation of these biomarkers in genital melanomas is limited. We evaluated the clinicopathological features of 20 vulvar, 32 vaginal, and three cervical melanomas and assessed programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression, CD8 tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte density, mismatch repair proteins, VE1 immunohistochemistry, and KIT and BRAF mutations. The median age of the patients was 66 years, and median tumor sizes were 25, 30, and 20 mm for vulvar, vaginal, and cervical tumors, respectively. Mean mitotic figures were 18, 19, and 30 per mm2. Thirty-seven patients (67%) had operable tumors. After a median follow-up of 15 months, only nine patients (16%) were alive. Eight of the nine survivors did not have lymph node metastasis. Using 5% as the threshold, PD-L1 expression was observed in 55%, 50%, and 33% of vulvar, vaginal, and cervical tumors, respectively, when the Roche SP263 antibody was used and 20%, 53%, and 0%, respectively, when the Dako 28-8 antibody was used. The median CD8 tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte density was significantly higher in vulvar/vaginal than cervical melanomas and correlated with PD-L1 expression. No cases exhibited loss of mismatch repair proteins. Five cases harbored KIT mutations, three of which were hotspots. BRAF V600E mutation was not detected. Univariable analysis showed that tumor size greater than or equal to 33 mm, mitotic figures of greater than or equal to 10 per mm2, lymph node metastasis, and low CD8+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte density were adverse prognostic factors. Thus, patients with genital melanomas have a poor prognosis, and evaluation of multiple biomarkers is necessary to identify patients who may benefit from immunotherapy or targeted therapy. © 2019, United States & Canadian Academy of Pathology.
Persistent Identifierhttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/273993
ISSN
2017 Impact Factor: 6.655
2015 SCImago Journal Rankings: 2.803

 

DC FieldValueLanguage
dc.contributor.authorYu, Y-
dc.contributor.authorTse, KY-
dc.contributor.authorLee, HYH-
dc.contributor.authorChow, KL-
dc.contributor.authorTsang, HW-
dc.contributor.authorWong, RWC-
dc.contributor.authorCheung, ETY-
dc.contributor.authorCheuk, W-
dc.contributor.authorLee, VWK-
dc.contributor.authorChan, WK-
dc.contributor.authorWong, AST-
dc.contributor.authorLoong, HHF-
dc.contributor.authorChan, KKL-
dc.contributor.authorNgan, HYS-
dc.contributor.authorCheung, ANY-
dc.contributor.authorIp, PPC-
dc.date.accessioned2019-08-18T14:52:54Z-
dc.date.available2019-08-18T14:52:54Z-
dc.date.issued2020-
dc.identifier.citationModern Pathology, 2020, v. 33, p. 138-152-
dc.identifier.issn0893-3952-
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/273993-
dc.description.abstractFemale genital melanomas are rare. At diagnosis, most affected patients have advanced disease. Surgery remains the primary treatment, and adjuvant therapy is largely ineffective. Recently, immune checkpoints and the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway have been explored as treatment targets. However, evaluation of these biomarkers in genital melanomas is limited. We evaluated the clinicopathological features of 20 vulvar, 32 vaginal, and three cervical melanomas and assessed programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression, CD8 tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte density, mismatch repair proteins, VE1 immunohistochemistry, and KIT and BRAF mutations. The median age of the patients was 66 years, and median tumor sizes were 25, 30, and 20 mm for vulvar, vaginal, and cervical tumors, respectively. Mean mitotic figures were 18, 19, and 30 per mm2. Thirty-seven patients (67%) had operable tumors. After a median follow-up of 15 months, only nine patients (16%) were alive. Eight of the nine survivors did not have lymph node metastasis. Using 5% as the threshold, PD-L1 expression was observed in 55%, 50%, and 33% of vulvar, vaginal, and cervical tumors, respectively, when the Roche SP263 antibody was used and 20%, 53%, and 0%, respectively, when the Dako 28-8 antibody was used. The median CD8 tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte density was significantly higher in vulvar/vaginal than cervical melanomas and correlated with PD-L1 expression. No cases exhibited loss of mismatch repair proteins. Five cases harbored KIT mutations, three of which were hotspots. BRAF V600E mutation was not detected. Univariable analysis showed that tumor size greater than or equal to 33 mm, mitotic figures of greater than or equal to 10 per mm2, lymph node metastasis, and low CD8+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte density were adverse prognostic factors. Thus, patients with genital melanomas have a poor prognosis, and evaluation of multiple biomarkers is necessary to identify patients who may benefit from immunotherapy or targeted therapy. © 2019, United States & Canadian Academy of Pathology.-
dc.languageeng-
dc.publisherNature Publishing Group. The Journal's web site is located at http://www.nature.com/modpathol/-
dc.relation.ispartofModern Pathology-
dc.rightsThis is a post-peer-review, pre-copyedit version of an article published in [insert journal title]. The final authenticated version is available online at: https://doi.org/[insert DOI]-
dc.subjectImmunotherapy-
dc.subjectNeoplasms-
dc.subjectCheckpoint inhibitor-
dc.titlePredictive biomarkers and tumor microenvironment in female genital melanomas: a multi-institutional study of 55 cases-
dc.typeArticle-
dc.identifier.emailTse, KY: tseky@hku.hk-
dc.identifier.emailLee, HYH: horlee@hku.hk-
dc.identifier.emailChow, KL: cklpatho@pathology.hku.hk-
dc.identifier.emailTsang, HW: thwpaed@hku.hk-
dc.identifier.emailWong, AST: awong1@hku.hk-
dc.identifier.emailChan, KKL: kklchan@hkucc.hku.hk-
dc.identifier.emailNgan, HYS: hysngan@hkucc.hku.hk-
dc.identifier.emailCheung, ANY: anycheun@hkucc.hku.hk-
dc.identifier.emailIp, PPC: philipip@hku.hk-
dc.identifier.authorityTse, KY=rp02391-
dc.identifier.authorityWong, AST=rp00805-
dc.identifier.authorityChan, KKL=rp00499-
dc.identifier.authorityNgan, HYS=rp00346-
dc.identifier.authorityCheung, ANY=rp00542-
dc.identifier.authorityIp, PPC=rp01890-
dc.description.naturelink_to_subscribed_fulltext-
dc.identifier.doi10.1038/s41379-019-0345-2-
dc.identifier.scopuseid_2-s2.0-85070194168-
dc.identifier.hkuros301794-
dc.identifier.volume33-
dc.identifier.spage138-
dc.identifier.epage152-
dc.publisher.placeUnited Kingdom-

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