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Article: Characteristics of Fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5) over Urban, Suburban, and Rural Areas of Hong Kong

TitleCharacteristics of Fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5) over Urban, Suburban, and Rural Areas of Hong Kong
Authors
KeywordsPM2.5
meteorological variables
temporal evolution
urban and rural areas
Hong Kong
Issue Date2019
PublisherMDPI AG. The Journal's web site is located at http://www.mdpi.com/journal/atmosphere
Citation
Atmosphere, 2019, v. 10 n. 9, p. article no. 496 How to Cite?
AbstractIn urban areas, fine particulate matter (PM2.5) associated with local vehicle emissions can cause respiratory and cardiorespiratory disease and increased mortality rates, but less so in rural areas. However, Hong Kong may be a special case, since the whole territory often suffers from regional haze from nearby mainland China, as well as local sources. Therefore, to understand which areas of Hong Kong may be affected by damaging levels of fine particulates, PM2.5 data were obtained from March 2005 to February 2009 for urban, suburban, and rural air quality monitoring stations; namely Central (city area, commercial area, and urban populated area), Tsuen Wan (city area, commercial area, urban populated, and residential area), Tung Chung (suburban and residential area), Yuen Long (urban and residential area), and Tap Mun (remote rural area). To evaluate the relative contributions of regional and local pollution sources, the study aimed to test the influence of weather conditions on PM2.5 concentrations. Thus, meteorological parameters including temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and wind directions were obtained from the Hong Kong Observatory. The results showed that Hong Kong’s air quality is mainly affected by regional aerosol emissions, either transported from the land or ocean, as similar patterns of variations in PM2.5 concentrations were observed over urban, suburban, and rural areas of Hong Kong. Only slightly higher PM2.5 concentrations were observed over urban sites, such as Central, compared to suburban and rural sites, which could be attributed to local automobile emissions. Results showed that meteorological parameters have the potential to explain 80% of the variability in daily mean PM2.5 concentrations—at Yuen Long, 77% at Tung Chung, 72% at Central, 71% at Tsuen Wan, and 67% at Tap Mun, during the spring to summer part of the year. The results provide not only a better understanding of the impact of regional long-distance transport of air pollutants on Hong Kong’s air quality but also a reference for future regional-scale collaboration on air quality management.
Persistent Identifierhttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/276377
ISSN
2018 Impact Factor: 2.046
2015 SCImago Journal Rankings: 0.626

 

DC FieldValueLanguage
dc.contributor.authorBilal, M-
dc.contributor.authorNichol, JE-
dc.contributor.authorNazeer, M-
dc.contributor.authorShi, Y-
dc.contributor.authorWang, L-
dc.contributor.authorKumar, KR-
dc.contributor.authorHo, HC-
dc.contributor.authorMazhar, U-
dc.contributor.authorBleiweiss, MP-
dc.contributor.authorQiu, Z-
dc.contributor.authorKhedher, KM-
dc.contributor.authorLolli, S-
dc.date.accessioned2019-09-10T03:01:58Z-
dc.date.available2019-09-10T03:01:58Z-
dc.date.issued2019-
dc.identifier.citationAtmosphere, 2019, v. 10 n. 9, p. article no. 496-
dc.identifier.issn2073-4433-
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/276377-
dc.description.abstractIn urban areas, fine particulate matter (PM2.5) associated with local vehicle emissions can cause respiratory and cardiorespiratory disease and increased mortality rates, but less so in rural areas. However, Hong Kong may be a special case, since the whole territory often suffers from regional haze from nearby mainland China, as well as local sources. Therefore, to understand which areas of Hong Kong may be affected by damaging levels of fine particulates, PM2.5 data were obtained from March 2005 to February 2009 for urban, suburban, and rural air quality monitoring stations; namely Central (city area, commercial area, and urban populated area), Tsuen Wan (city area, commercial area, urban populated, and residential area), Tung Chung (suburban and residential area), Yuen Long (urban and residential area), and Tap Mun (remote rural area). To evaluate the relative contributions of regional and local pollution sources, the study aimed to test the influence of weather conditions on PM2.5 concentrations. Thus, meteorological parameters including temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and wind directions were obtained from the Hong Kong Observatory. The results showed that Hong Kong’s air quality is mainly affected by regional aerosol emissions, either transported from the land or ocean, as similar patterns of variations in PM2.5 concentrations were observed over urban, suburban, and rural areas of Hong Kong. Only slightly higher PM2.5 concentrations were observed over urban sites, such as Central, compared to suburban and rural sites, which could be attributed to local automobile emissions. Results showed that meteorological parameters have the potential to explain 80% of the variability in daily mean PM2.5 concentrations—at Yuen Long, 77% at Tung Chung, 72% at Central, 71% at Tsuen Wan, and 67% at Tap Mun, during the spring to summer part of the year. The results provide not only a better understanding of the impact of regional long-distance transport of air pollutants on Hong Kong’s air quality but also a reference for future regional-scale collaboration on air quality management.-
dc.languageeng-
dc.publisherMDPI AG. The Journal's web site is located at http://www.mdpi.com/journal/atmosphere-
dc.relation.ispartofAtmosphere-
dc.rightsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.-
dc.subjectPM2.5-
dc.subjectmeteorological variables-
dc.subjecttemporal evolution-
dc.subjecturban and rural areas-
dc.subjectHong Kong-
dc.titleCharacteristics of Fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5) over Urban, Suburban, and Rural Areas of Hong Kong-
dc.typeArticle-
dc.identifier.emailHo, HC: hcho21@hku.hk-
dc.identifier.authorityHo, HC=rp02482-
dc.description.naturepublished_or_final_version-
dc.identifier.doi10.3390/atmos10090496-
dc.identifier.scopuseid_2-s2.0-85072242061-
dc.identifier.hkuros304471-
dc.identifier.volume10-
dc.identifier.issue9-
dc.identifier.spagearticle no. 496-
dc.identifier.epagearticle no. 496-
dc.publisher.placeSwitzerland-

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