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Article: Shadow Education in Europe: Growing Prevalence, Underlying Forces, and Policy Implications

TitleShadow Education in Europe: Growing Prevalence, Underlying Forces, and Policy Implications
Authors
KeywordsEurope
market forces
policies
privatization
private tutoring
Issue Date2020
PublisherSage, published in association with East China Normal University. The Journal's web site is located at https://journals.sagepub.com/home/roe
Citation
ECNU Review of Education, 2020, Epub 2020-01-13 How to Cite?
AbstractPurpose: Private supplementary tutoring, widely known as shadow education, has long been visible in East Asia, and now has spread to other parts of the world including Europe. This article maps the phenomenon, showing variations within Europe and analyzing its growth, underlying forces, and policy implications. Design/Approach/Methods: The article assembles a regional picture from available national sources. It focuses on the 28 members of the European Union. Findings: Within Europe, four sub-regions may be identified. Most prominent for the longest duration has been Southern Europe, pushed by political forces and cultural factors. In Eastern Europe, shadow education became prominent following the collapse of the Soviet Union and accompanying economic and social structures during which teachers and others had to earn extra incomes. In Western Europe, the advent of marketization alongside government schooling has fueled the growth of shadow education. Only in Northern Europe does shadow education remain modest in scale, but it is growing there too. Originality/Value: The article identifies forces underlying the growth of shadow education in Europe, and highlights policy implications. By contributing this regional perspective to the wider literature on shadow education, the article permits juxtaposition with patterns in East Asia and elsewhere.
Persistent Identifierhttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/295220
ISSN

 

DC FieldValueLanguage
dc.contributor.authorBray, M-
dc.date.accessioned2021-01-11T13:57:02Z-
dc.date.available2021-01-11T13:57:02Z-
dc.date.issued2020-
dc.identifier.citationECNU Review of Education, 2020, Epub 2020-01-13-
dc.identifier.issn2096-5311-
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/295220-
dc.description.abstractPurpose: Private supplementary tutoring, widely known as shadow education, has long been visible in East Asia, and now has spread to other parts of the world including Europe. This article maps the phenomenon, showing variations within Europe and analyzing its growth, underlying forces, and policy implications. Design/Approach/Methods: The article assembles a regional picture from available national sources. It focuses on the 28 members of the European Union. Findings: Within Europe, four sub-regions may be identified. Most prominent for the longest duration has been Southern Europe, pushed by political forces and cultural factors. In Eastern Europe, shadow education became prominent following the collapse of the Soviet Union and accompanying economic and social structures during which teachers and others had to earn extra incomes. In Western Europe, the advent of marketization alongside government schooling has fueled the growth of shadow education. Only in Northern Europe does shadow education remain modest in scale, but it is growing there too. Originality/Value: The article identifies forces underlying the growth of shadow education in Europe, and highlights policy implications. By contributing this regional perspective to the wider literature on shadow education, the article permits juxtaposition with patterns in East Asia and elsewhere.-
dc.languageeng-
dc.publisherSage, published in association with East China Normal University. The Journal's web site is located at https://journals.sagepub.com/home/roe-
dc.relation.ispartofECNU Review of Education-
dc.rightsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.-
dc.subjectEurope-
dc.subjectmarket forces-
dc.subjectpolicies-
dc.subjectprivatization-
dc.subjectprivate tutoring-
dc.titleShadow Education in Europe: Growing Prevalence, Underlying Forces, and Policy Implications-
dc.typeArticle-
dc.identifier.emailBray, M: mbray@hkucc.hku.hk-
dc.identifier.authorityBray, M=rp00888-
dc.description.naturepublished_or_final_version-
dc.identifier.doi10.1177/2096531119890142-
dc.identifier.hkuros320867-
dc.identifier.volumeEpub 2020-01-13-
dc.publisher.placeChina-

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