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Article: Biomimetic porous scaffolds for bone tissue engineering

TitleBiomimetic porous scaffolds for bone tissue engineering
Authors
KeywordsBiomimetic
Scaffold
Bone implants
Tissue engineering
Surface bio-functionalization
Issue Date2014
PublisherElsevier BV. The Journal's web site is located at http://www.elsevier.com/locate/mser
Citation
Materials Science and Engineering: R, 2014, v. 80, p. 1-36 How to Cite?
AbstractIncreased use of reconstruction procedures in orthopedics, due to trauma, tumor, deformity, degeneration and an aging population, has caused a blossom, not only in surgical advancement, but also in the development of bone implants. Traditional synthetic porous scaffolds are made of metals, polymers, ceramics or even composite biomaterials, in which the design does not consider the native structure and properties of cells and natural tissues. Thus, these synthetic scaffolds often poorly integrate with the cells and surrounding host tissue, thereby resulting in unsatisfactory surgical outcomes due to poor corrosion and wear, mechanical mismatch, unamiable surface environment, and other unfavorable properties. Musculoskeletal tissue reconstruction is the ultimate objective in orthopedic surgery. This objective can be achieved by (i) prosthesis or fixation device implantation, and (ii) tissue engineered bone scaffolds. These devices focus on the design of implants, regardless of the choice of new biomaterials. Indeed, metallic materials, e.g. 316L stainless steel, titanium alloys and cobalt chromium alloys, are predominantly used in bone surgeries, especially in the load-bearing zone of prostheses. The engineered scaffolds take biodegradability, cell biology, biomolecules and material mechanical properties into account, in which these features are ideally suited for bone tissue repair and regeneration. Therefore, the design of the scaffold is extremely important to the success of clinical outcomes in musculoskeletal surgeries. The ideal scaffolds should mimic the natural extracellular matrix (ECM) as much as possible, since the ECM found in natural tissues supports cell attachment, proliferation, and differentiation, indicating that scaffolds should consist of appropriate biochemistry and nano/micro-scale surface topographies, in order to formulate favorable binding sites to actively regulate and control cell and tissue behavior, while interacting with host cells. In addition, scaffolds should also possess a similar macro structure to what is found in natural bone. This feature may provide space for the growth of cells and new tissues, as well as for the carriers of growth factors. Another important concern is the mechanical properties of scaffolds. It has been reported that the mechanical features can significantly influence the osteointegration between implants and surrounding tissues, as well as cell behaviors. Since natural bone exhibits super-elastic biomechanical properties with a Young's modulus value in the range of 1–27 GPa, the ideal scaffolds should mimic strength, stiffness and mechanical behavior, so as to avoid possible post-operation stress shielding effects, which induce bone resorption and consequent implant failure. In addition, the rate of degradation and the by-products of biodegradable materials are also critical in the role of bone regeneration. Indeed, the mechanical integrity of a scaffold will be significantly reduced if the degradation rate is rapid, thereby resulting in a pre-matured collapse of the scaffold before the tissue is regenerated. Another concern is that the by-products upon degradation may alter the tissue microenvironment and then challenge the biocompatibility of the scaffold and the subsequent tissue repair. Therefore, these two factors should be carefully considered when designing new biomaterials for tissue regeneration. To address the aforementioned questions, an overview of the design of ideal biomimetic porous scaffolds is presented in this paper. Hence, a number of original engineering processes and techniques, including the production of a hierarchical structure on both the macro- and nano-scales, the adjustment of biomechanical properties through structural alignment and chemical components, the control of the biodegradability of the scaffold and its by-products, the change of biomimetic surface properties by altering interfacial chemistry, and micro- and nano-topographies will be discussed. In general, the concepts and techniques mentioned above provide insights into designing superior biomimetic scaffolds for bone tissue engineering.
Persistent Identifierhttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/203220
ISSN
2019 Impact Factor: 26.625
2015 SCImago Journal Rankings: 7.616
ISI Accession Number ID

 

DC FieldValueLanguage
dc.contributor.authorWu, S-
dc.contributor.authorLiu, X-
dc.contributor.authorYeung, KWK-
dc.contributor.authorLiu, C-
dc.contributor.authorYang, X-
dc.date.accessioned2014-09-19T13:10:24Z-
dc.date.available2014-09-19T13:10:24Z-
dc.date.issued2014-
dc.identifier.citationMaterials Science and Engineering: R, 2014, v. 80, p. 1-36-
dc.identifier.issn0927-796X-
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/203220-
dc.description.abstractIncreased use of reconstruction procedures in orthopedics, due to trauma, tumor, deformity, degeneration and an aging population, has caused a blossom, not only in surgical advancement, but also in the development of bone implants. Traditional synthetic porous scaffolds are made of metals, polymers, ceramics or even composite biomaterials, in which the design does not consider the native structure and properties of cells and natural tissues. Thus, these synthetic scaffolds often poorly integrate with the cells and surrounding host tissue, thereby resulting in unsatisfactory surgical outcomes due to poor corrosion and wear, mechanical mismatch, unamiable surface environment, and other unfavorable properties. Musculoskeletal tissue reconstruction is the ultimate objective in orthopedic surgery. This objective can be achieved by (i) prosthesis or fixation device implantation, and (ii) tissue engineered bone scaffolds. These devices focus on the design of implants, regardless of the choice of new biomaterials. Indeed, metallic materials, e.g. 316L stainless steel, titanium alloys and cobalt chromium alloys, are predominantly used in bone surgeries, especially in the load-bearing zone of prostheses. The engineered scaffolds take biodegradability, cell biology, biomolecules and material mechanical properties into account, in which these features are ideally suited for bone tissue repair and regeneration. Therefore, the design of the scaffold is extremely important to the success of clinical outcomes in musculoskeletal surgeries. The ideal scaffolds should mimic the natural extracellular matrix (ECM) as much as possible, since the ECM found in natural tissues supports cell attachment, proliferation, and differentiation, indicating that scaffolds should consist of appropriate biochemistry and nano/micro-scale surface topographies, in order to formulate favorable binding sites to actively regulate and control cell and tissue behavior, while interacting with host cells. In addition, scaffolds should also possess a similar macro structure to what is found in natural bone. This feature may provide space for the growth of cells and new tissues, as well as for the carriers of growth factors. Another important concern is the mechanical properties of scaffolds. It has been reported that the mechanical features can significantly influence the osteointegration between implants and surrounding tissues, as well as cell behaviors. Since natural bone exhibits super-elastic biomechanical properties with a Young's modulus value in the range of 1–27 GPa, the ideal scaffolds should mimic strength, stiffness and mechanical behavior, so as to avoid possible post-operation stress shielding effects, which induce bone resorption and consequent implant failure. In addition, the rate of degradation and the by-products of biodegradable materials are also critical in the role of bone regeneration. Indeed, the mechanical integrity of a scaffold will be significantly reduced if the degradation rate is rapid, thereby resulting in a pre-matured collapse of the scaffold before the tissue is regenerated. Another concern is that the by-products upon degradation may alter the tissue microenvironment and then challenge the biocompatibility of the scaffold and the subsequent tissue repair. Therefore, these two factors should be carefully considered when designing new biomaterials for tissue regeneration. To address the aforementioned questions, an overview of the design of ideal biomimetic porous scaffolds is presented in this paper. Hence, a number of original engineering processes and techniques, including the production of a hierarchical structure on both the macro- and nano-scales, the adjustment of biomechanical properties through structural alignment and chemical components, the control of the biodegradability of the scaffold and its by-products, the change of biomimetic surface properties by altering interfacial chemistry, and micro- and nano-topographies will be discussed. In general, the concepts and techniques mentioned above provide insights into designing superior biomimetic scaffolds for bone tissue engineering.-
dc.languageeng-
dc.publisherElsevier BV. The Journal's web site is located at http://www.elsevier.com/locate/mser-
dc.relation.ispartofMaterials Science and Engineering: R-
dc.subjectBiomimetic-
dc.subjectScaffold-
dc.subjectBone implants-
dc.subjectTissue engineering-
dc.subjectSurface bio-functionalization-
dc.titleBiomimetic porous scaffolds for bone tissue engineering-
dc.typeArticle-
dc.identifier.emailLiu, X: liuxm@hku.hk-
dc.identifier.emailYeung, KWK: wkkyeung@hku.hk-
dc.identifier.authorityYeung, KWK=rp00309-
dc.description.naturelink_to_subscribed_fulltext-
dc.identifier.doi10.1016/j.mser.2014.04.001-
dc.identifier.scopuseid_2-s2.0-84899889621-
dc.identifier.hkuros237688-
dc.identifier.volume80-
dc.identifier.spage1-
dc.identifier.epage36-
dc.identifier.isiWOS:000337931600001-
dc.publisher.placeNetherlands-
dc.identifier.issnl0927-796X-

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