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Article: Opening PANDORA’s box: APEX observations of CO in PNe

TitleOpening PANDORA’s box: APEX observations of CO in PNe
Authors
KeywordsLine: identification
Molecular data
Catalogs
(ISM) planetary nebulae: general
Issue Date2018
PublisherEDP Sciences. The Journal's web site is located at http://www.aanda.org
Citation
Astronomy & Astrophysics, 2018, v. 618, article no. A91, p. 1-21 How to Cite?
AbstractContext. Observations of molecular gas have played a key role in developing the current understanding of the late stages of stellar evolution. Aims. The survey Planetary nebulae AND their cO Reservoir with APEX (PANDORA) was designed to study the circumstellar shells of evolved stars with the aim to estimate their physical parameters. Methods. Millimetre carbon monoxide (CO) emission is the most useful probe of the warm molecular component ejected by low- to intermediate-mass stars. CO is the second-most abundant molecule in the Universe, and the millimetre transitions are easily excited, thus making it particularly useful to study the mass, structure, and kinematics of the molecular gas. We present a large survey of the CO (J = 3−2) line using the Atacama Pathfinder EXperiment (APEX) telescope in a sample of 93 proto-planetary nebulae and planetary nebulae. Results. CO (J = 3−2) was detected in 21 of the 93 objects. Only two objects (IRC+10216 and PN M2-9) had previous CO (J = 3−2) detections, therefore we present the first detection of CO (J = 3−2) in the following 19 objects: Frosty Leo, HD 101584, IRAS 19475+3119, PN M1-11, V* V852 Cen, IC 4406, Hen 2-113, Hen 2-133, PN Fg 3, PN Cn 3-1, PN M2-43, PN M1-63, PN M1-65, BD+30 3639, Hen 2-447, Hen 2-459, PN M3-35, NGC 3132, and NGC 6326. Conclusions. CO (J = 3−2) was detected in all 4 observed pPNe (100%), 15 of the 75 PNe (20%), one of the 4 wide binaries (25%), and in 1 of the 10 close binaries (10%). Using the CO (J = 3−2) line, we estimated the column density and mass of each source. The H2 column density ranges from 1.7 × 1018 to 4.2 × 1021 cm−2 and the molecular mass ranges from 2.7 × 10−4 to 1.7 × 10−1 M⊙.
Persistent Identifierhttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/265124
ISSN
2019 Impact Factor: 5.636
2015 SCImago Journal Rankings: 2.446
ISI Accession Number ID

 

DC FieldValueLanguage
dc.contributor.authorGuzman-Ramirez, L-
dc.contributor.authorGómez-Ruíz, AI-
dc.contributor.authorBoffin, HMJ-
dc.contributor.authorJones, D-
dc.contributor.authorWesson, R-
dc.contributor.authorZijlstra, AA-
dc.contributor.authorSmith, CL-
dc.contributor.authorNyman, LÅ-
dc.date.accessioned2018-11-20T02:00:38Z-
dc.date.available2018-11-20T02:00:38Z-
dc.date.issued2018-
dc.identifier.citationAstronomy & Astrophysics, 2018, v. 618, article no. A91, p. 1-21-
dc.identifier.issn0004-6361-
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/265124-
dc.description.abstractContext. Observations of molecular gas have played a key role in developing the current understanding of the late stages of stellar evolution. Aims. The survey Planetary nebulae AND their cO Reservoir with APEX (PANDORA) was designed to study the circumstellar shells of evolved stars with the aim to estimate their physical parameters. Methods. Millimetre carbon monoxide (CO) emission is the most useful probe of the warm molecular component ejected by low- to intermediate-mass stars. CO is the second-most abundant molecule in the Universe, and the millimetre transitions are easily excited, thus making it particularly useful to study the mass, structure, and kinematics of the molecular gas. We present a large survey of the CO (J = 3−2) line using the Atacama Pathfinder EXperiment (APEX) telescope in a sample of 93 proto-planetary nebulae and planetary nebulae. Results. CO (J = 3−2) was detected in 21 of the 93 objects. Only two objects (IRC+10216 and PN M2-9) had previous CO (J = 3−2) detections, therefore we present the first detection of CO (J = 3−2) in the following 19 objects: Frosty Leo, HD 101584, IRAS 19475+3119, PN M1-11, V* V852 Cen, IC 4406, Hen 2-113, Hen 2-133, PN Fg 3, PN Cn 3-1, PN M2-43, PN M1-63, PN M1-65, BD+30 3639, Hen 2-447, Hen 2-459, PN M3-35, NGC 3132, and NGC 6326. Conclusions. CO (J = 3−2) was detected in all 4 observed pPNe (100%), 15 of the 75 PNe (20%), one of the 4 wide binaries (25%), and in 1 of the 10 close binaries (10%). Using the CO (J = 3−2) line, we estimated the column density and mass of each source. The H2 column density ranges from 1.7 × 1018 to 4.2 × 1021 cm−2 and the molecular mass ranges from 2.7 × 10−4 to 1.7 × 10−1 M⊙.-
dc.languageeng-
dc.publisherEDP Sciences. The Journal's web site is located at http://www.aanda.org-
dc.relation.ispartofAstronomy & Astrophysics-
dc.rightsReproduced with permission from Astronomy & Astrophysics, © ESO 2018. The original publication is available at https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201731912-
dc.subjectLine: identification-
dc.subjectMolecular data-
dc.subjectCatalogs-
dc.subject(ISM) planetary nebulae: general-
dc.titleOpening PANDORA’s box: APEX observations of CO in PNe-
dc.typeArticle-
dc.description.naturepublished_or_final_version-
dc.identifier.doi10.1051/0004-6361/201731912-
dc.identifier.hkuros296060-
dc.identifier.volume618-
dc.identifier.spagearticle no. A91, p. 1-
dc.identifier.epagearticle no. A91, p. 21-
dc.identifier.isiWOS:000447251600001-
dc.publisher.placeFrance-

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