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Article: The Downs-Thomson Paradox with responsive transit service

TitleThe Downs-Thomson Paradox with responsive transit service
Authors
KeywordsTransit fare
Profit-maximization
Highway capacity expansion
Downs-Thomson Paradox
Zero-profit
Transit service frequency
Issue Date2014
Citation
Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 2014, v. 70, p. 244-263 How to Cite?
Abstract© 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Downs (1962) and Thomson (1977) suggested that highway capacity expansion may produce counterproductive effects on the two-mode (auto and transit) transport system (Downs-Thomson Paradox). This paper investigates the occurrence of this paradox when transit authority can have different economic objectives (profit-maximizing or breakeven) and operating schemes (frequency, fare, or both frequency and fare). For various combinations of economic objectives and operating schemes, the interaction between highway expansion and transit service is explored, as well as its impact on travelers' mode choices and travel utilities. Further, for each combination, the conditions for occurrence of the Downs-Thomson Paradox are established. We show that the paradox never occurs when transit authority is profit-maximizing, but it is inevitable when the transit authority is running to maximize travelers' utility while maintaining breakeven. This is because the former transit authority tends to enhance transit service (e.g., raise frequency or reduce fare) when facing an expanded highway; and on the contrary, the latter tends to compromise transit service (e.g., reduce frequency or raise fare). Both analytical and numerical examples are provided to verify the theoretical results.
Persistent Identifierhttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/281428
ISSN
2019 Impact Factor: 3.992
2015 SCImago Journal Rankings: 1.810
ISI Accession Number ID

 

DC FieldValueLanguage
dc.contributor.authorZhang, Fangni-
dc.contributor.authorYang, Hai-
dc.contributor.authorLiu, Wei-
dc.date.accessioned2020-03-13T10:37:50Z-
dc.date.available2020-03-13T10:37:50Z-
dc.date.issued2014-
dc.identifier.citationTransportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 2014, v. 70, p. 244-263-
dc.identifier.issn0965-8564-
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/281428-
dc.description.abstract© 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Downs (1962) and Thomson (1977) suggested that highway capacity expansion may produce counterproductive effects on the two-mode (auto and transit) transport system (Downs-Thomson Paradox). This paper investigates the occurrence of this paradox when transit authority can have different economic objectives (profit-maximizing or breakeven) and operating schemes (frequency, fare, or both frequency and fare). For various combinations of economic objectives and operating schemes, the interaction between highway expansion and transit service is explored, as well as its impact on travelers' mode choices and travel utilities. Further, for each combination, the conditions for occurrence of the Downs-Thomson Paradox are established. We show that the paradox never occurs when transit authority is profit-maximizing, but it is inevitable when the transit authority is running to maximize travelers' utility while maintaining breakeven. This is because the former transit authority tends to enhance transit service (e.g., raise frequency or reduce fare) when facing an expanded highway; and on the contrary, the latter tends to compromise transit service (e.g., reduce frequency or raise fare). Both analytical and numerical examples are provided to verify the theoretical results.-
dc.languageeng-
dc.relation.ispartofTransportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice-
dc.subjectTransit fare-
dc.subjectProfit-maximization-
dc.subjectHighway capacity expansion-
dc.subjectDowns-Thomson Paradox-
dc.subjectZero-profit-
dc.subjectTransit service frequency-
dc.titleThe Downs-Thomson Paradox with responsive transit service-
dc.typeArticle-
dc.description.naturelink_to_subscribed_fulltext-
dc.identifier.doi10.1016/j.tra.2014.10.022-
dc.identifier.scopuseid_2-s2.0-84910681320-
dc.identifier.volume70-
dc.identifier.spage244-
dc.identifier.epage263-
dc.identifier.isiWOS:000346894300019-
dc.identifier.issnl0965-8564-

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